TEACHING ENGLISH as a Foreign Language

TEACHING ENGLISH as a Foreign Language

A Guide for Professionals

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Podręcznik wykorzystuje najnowsze osiągnięcia językoznawstwa, psychologii uczenia się, dydaktyki i teorii komunikacji. Przedstawia problemy dydaktyki z punktu widzenia przyswajania języka. Kładzie nacisk na aktywną rolę ucznia w procesie dydaktycznym poprzez wybór odpowiedniej strategii uczenia się. Szczególnie podkreśla wagę procesów stałych i powtarzalnych w przyswajaniu języka obcego. Krótko omawia tradycje i obecny stan dydaktyki języków obcych w Polsce i na świecie. Każdy rozdział zawiera podsumowanie, wykaz lektur uzupełniających, pytania, zadania i ćwiczenia, niezbędne w przygotowaniach do zaliczeń i egzaminów. Indeks rzeczowy i osób oraz słownik terminów znakomicie ułatwiają korzystanie z podręcznika i pomagają w przyswojeniu wiedzy.


Liczba stron292
WydawcaWydawnictwo Naukowe PWN
ISBN-13978-83-01-14498-2
Język publikacjiangielski
Informacja o sprzedawcyRavelo Sp. z o.o.

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Spis treści

  PART ONE Where do our ideas on foreign language teaching come from?    17
  1. Foreign language teaching in a historical perspective    17
  1.1. The role of Latin    17
  1.2. Grammar as the key to foreign language learning. The Grammar Translation Method    18
  1.3. Reactions to the Grammar Translation Method    20
  1.3.1. The Reform Movement    22
  1.4. The Natural and the Direct Methods    23
  1.5. The Reading Method    26
  1.6. The current view on the role of grammar    28
  1.7. The current view on the function of translation    29
  1.8. The current view on the role of the text    32
  Topics and review questions    32
  Further reading    33
  PART TWO Mainstream and alternative methods in TEFL in the second half of the 20th century    36
  2. Audiolingualism in teaching English as a foreign language    36
  2.1. Approach, method, technique    36
  2.2. Sources of audiolingualism    36
  2.2.1. Influences from psychology    37
  2.2.2. Influences from linguistics    38
  2.3. The Audiolingual Approach, Method and Techniques    39
  2.3.1. Five audiolingual slogans and their influence on the method of teaching    40
  2.3.2. Further characteristic features of the Audiolingual Method    43
  2.3.3. Characteristic techniques    45
  2.4. A critical look at the Audiolingual Approach, Method and Techniques    47
  2.5. The current view on drill, imitation, and repetition    49
  Topics and review questions    52
  Further reading    52
  3. The Cognitive Code Learning Theory    52
  3.1. Influences from psychology    53
  3.2. Influences from linguistics    55
  3.3. Five slogans of the Cognitive Approach and their implications for the Cognitive Method of foreign language teaching    57
  3.4. Further characteristic features of the Cognitive Method    59
  3.5. Closing remarks on the Cognitive Method    62
  3.6. The current view on the link between materials, meaning, and memory processes    63
  Topics and review questions    64
  Further reading    65
  4. Developments in foreign language teaching following the Audiolingual and the Cognitive Methods    65
  4.1. Pessimism regarding the search for an ideal method    65
  4.2. The eclectic orientation    66
  4.3. The alternative methods    67
  4.3.1. The Silent Way by Caleb Gattegno    68
  4.3.2. Total Physical Response by James Asher    71
  4.3.3. Suggestopedia by Georgi Lozanov    73
  4.3.4. Community Language Learning by Charles Curran    76
  Topics and review questions    79
  Further reading    80
  4.4. Focus on the learner    80
  4.5. Individual factors in foreign language learning    82
  4.6. Individualizing foreign language instruction    84
  4.7. The beginnings of Second Language Acquisition Research    86
  Topics and review questions    87
  Further reading    88
  PART THREE Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)    90
  5. The Communicative Approach to foreign language teaching    90
  5.1. Foundations of the Communicative Approach    90
  5.2. Interest in doing things with words    90
  5.3. The notion of communicative competence    92
  5.4. The importance of discourse in CLT    94
  5.5. The notion of role    97
  5.6. Developments in communicative syllabus design    98
  6. The Communicative Method and Techniques. Evaluating CLT    101
  6.1. The Communicative Method    101
  6.2. Criteria of communication in CLT    101
  6.3. Principles of the Communicative Method    103
  6.3.1. Further issues in the Communicative Method    105
  6.4. Typical activities and techniques    107
  6.4.1. Structured dialogue    108
  6.4.2. Jig-saw reading and listening    108
  6.4.3. Role-play    109
  Further reading    110
  6.4.4. Drama    110
  Further reading    111
  6.4.5. Simulation    111
  Further reading    113
  6.4.6. Project    113
  Further reading    115
  6.5. Evaluating CLT    115
  Topics and review questions    121
  Further reading    122
  PART FOUR The current perspective on teaching English as a foreign language    123
  7. Focus on verbal communication, learning, and reasoning    123
  7.1. The nature of communicative processes    124
  7.2. The main components of our learning ‘equipment’    128
  7.3. Strong ties between verbal communication and learning    131
  7.4. Language as a special code of verbal communication    132
  7.5. Reasoning processes available to the language learner    133
  Topics and review questions    134
  Further reading    135
  8. The whole-person involvement in verbal communication and learning    135
  8.1. The learner’s contribution to the dynamics of verbal communication and learning    135
  8.1.1. The role of cognitive resources    136
  8.1.2. Making communicative adjustments    137
  8.1.3. The learner’s creative and constructive involvement    137
  8.2. Personality factors    138
  8.2.1. The role of the learner’s personality    138
  8.2.2. The role of self-concept and self-esteem    138
  8.2.3. Communicative assertiveness    140
  8.3. The learner’s development along the lifespan    141
  Topics and review questions    142
  Further reading    143
  9. Conditions for foreign language learning. Input, interaction, feedback. The role of cultivation strategies    143
  9.1. Primary conditions for foreign language learning    144
  9.2. What can we learn from observing children?    145
  9.3. Secondary conditions for foreign language learning. Cultivation of language learning in the classroom    146
  9.3.1. The essential processes in foreign language learning and teaching    147
  9.4. A look back at the traditional approaches to foreign language teaching    150
  9.5. The nature of teaching – the role of the teacher    151
  9.6. Focus on form and accuracy    153
  9.7. The origin and role of the foreign language teaching method at the beginning of the 21st century    154
  Topics and review questions    156
  Further reading    156
  PART FIVE How communication and learning emerge    157
  10. The development of the language learner in childhood and adolescence    157
  10.1. Landmarks of development    158
  10.1.1. Gradual emergence of verbal communication    160
  10.2. The first stage – infancy and toddlerhood    160
  10.2.1. The psychosocial development    160
  10.2.2. Communication    161
  10.3. Early childhood (3–6 years)    163
  10.3.1. Language and communication in early childhood    165
  10.3.2. Play in early childhood    166
  10.4. Middle childhood    166
  10.4.1. Piaget’s stage of concrete operations    166
  10.4.2. The development of memory in middle childhood    167
  10.4.3. The development of thinking    169
  10.4.4. Language development    169
  10.4.5. Developing a sense of humour    170
  10.4.6. Gifted and creative children    171
  10.4.7. Personality and social development in middle childhood    172
  10.5. Adolescence    173
  10.5.1. Intellectual development in adolescence    174
  10.5.2. Personality development    174
  10.5.3. The search for identity, including sexual identity    175
  10.6. Resulting principles of foreign language teaching in childhood and adolescence    176
  Topics and review questions    178
  Further reading    178
  PART SIX Foreign language skills in the context of verbal communication    179
  11. Spoken and written discourse    179
  11.1. Comprehension and production as an integral part of verbal communication    179
  11.2. Differences between spoken and written discourse    180
  11.3. Authentic and didactic texts. Authentic and didactic tasks    183
  11.4. Stages in learning a skill in a foreign language    187
  Topics and review questions    189
  Further reading    190
  12. Receptive skills: reading comprehension    190
  12.1. Reading as a form of interaction    190
  12.2. Bottom-up and top-down processes in reading    191
  12.3. The learner’s angle on reading    192
  12.4. The levels of reading comprehension    193
  12.5. The teacher’s analysis of the text for its communicative and language learning ,potential    196
  12.6. Sources of difficulty in reading comprehension and strategies of dealing with them .    200
  12.6.1. Increasing background knowledge    200
  12.6.2. Highlighting the genre    202
  12.7. Vocabulary and the reading passage    203
  12.8. Types of reading and their function in learning English as a foreign language    205
  12.9. Options in designing reading tasks. Pre-reading, reading, and follow-up    207
  Further reading    212
  13. Receptive skills: listening comprehension    212
  13.1. Functions of auditory input in foreign language learning    213
  13.1.1. The learner as a member of an audience    213
  13.1.2. The learner as an addressee    214
  13.1.3. Input for pronunciation    215
  13.2. Listening comprehension as an integral part of verbal communication    217
  13.3. Difficulties experienced by foreign language learners in listening comprehension tasks    218
  13.4. Guidelines for listening tasks    220
  13.5. Auditory input and various follow-up activities    220
  13.6. Activities aimed at developing listening comprehension    222
  13.7. The function of tapescript in listening comprehension tasks    226
  13.8. Options in designing a listening comprehension task    227
  Further reading    231
  14. Productive skills: speaking    231
  14.1. Speaking as an act of verbal communication    232
  14.2. Long-term investment in speaking    234
  14.3. The structure of conversation    235
  14.4. Abilites involved in participating in a conversation    237
  14.5. The role of anxiety in developing the speaking skill    238
  14.6. Cultivating articulacy in EFL    240
  14.7. Selected activities for the development of the speaking skill    244
  Topics and review questions    247
  Further reading    247
  15. Productive skills: writing    248
  15.1. Writing as an act of constructing a message    248
  15.2. Differences between experienced and inexperienced writers    250
  15.3. Long-term investment in the writing skill    251
  15.4. Learning to write versus process writing    252
  15.5. Sample activities in learning how to write in EFL    254
  15.6. Process writing    258
  15.7. Error correction in written work    259
  Topics and review questions    261
  Further reading    262
  Conclusions    263
  Additional terms    267
  References    273
  Index    281
  Name index    289
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