TEACHING ENGLISH as a Foreign Language

TEACHING ENGLISH as a Foreign Language

A Guide for Professionals

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Podręcznik wykorzystuje najnowsze osiągnięcia językoznawstwa, psychologii uczenia się, dydaktyki i teorii komunikacji. Przedstawia problemy dydaktyki z punktu widzenia przyswajania języka. Kładzie nacisk na aktywną rolę ucznia w procesie dydaktycznym poprzez wybór odpowiedniej strategii uczenia się. Szczególnie podkreśla wagę procesów stałych i powtarzalnych w przyswajaniu języka obcego. Krótko omawia tradycje i obecny stan dydaktyki języków obcych w Polsce i na świecie. Każdy rozdział zawiera podsumowanie, wykaz lektur uzupełniających, pytania, zadania i ćwiczenia, niezbędne w przygotowaniach do zaliczeń i egzaminów. Indeks rzeczowy i osób oraz słownik terminów znakomicie ułatwiają korzystanie z podręcznika i pomagają w przyswojeniu wiedzy.


Liczba stron292
WydawcaWydawnictwo Naukowe PWN
ISBN-13978-83-01-14498-2
Język publikacjiangielski
Informacja o sprzedawcyePWN Sp. z o.o.

Ciekawe propozycje

Spis treści

  PART ONE Where do our ideas on foreign language teaching come from?    17
  
  1. Foreign language teaching in a historical perspective     17
  1.1. The role of Latin     17
  1.2. Grammar as the key to foreign language learning. The Grammar Translation Method     18
  1.3. Reactions to the Grammar Translation Method     20
  1.3.1. The Reform Movement     22
  1.4. The Natural and the Direct Methods     23
  1.5. The Reading Method     26
  1.6. The current view on the role of grammar     28
  1.7. The current view on the function of translation     29
  1.8. The current view on the role of the text     32
  Topics and review questions     32
  Further reading     33
  
  PART TWO Mainstream and alternative methods in TEFL in the second half of the 20th century    36
  
  2. Audiolingualism in teaching English as a foreign language     36
  2.1. Approach, method, technique     36
  2.2. Sources of audiolingualism     36
  2.2.1. Influences from psychology     37
  2.2.2. Influences from linguistics     38
  2.3. The Audiolingual Approach, Method and Techniques     39
  2.3.1. Five audiolingual slogans and their influence on the method of teaching     40
  2.3.2. Further characteristic features of the Audiolingual Method     43
  2.3.3. Characteristic techniques     45
  2.4. A critical look at the Audiolingual Approach, Method and Techniques     47
  2.5. The current view on drill, imitation, and repetition     49
  Topics and review questions     52
  Further reading     52
  
  3. The Cognitive Code Learning Theory     52
  3.1. Influences from psychology     53
  3.2. Influences from linguistics     55
  3.3. Five slogans of the Cognitive Approach and their implications for the Cognitive Method of foreign language teaching     57
  3.4. Further characteristic features of the Cognitive Method     59
  3.5. Closing remarks on the Cognitive Method     62
  3.6. The current view on the link between materials, meaning, and memory processes     63
  Topics and review questions     64
  Further reading     65
  
  4. Developments in foreign language teaching following the Audiolingual and the Cognitive Methods     65
  4.1. Pessimism regarding the search for an ideal method     65
  4.2. The eclectic orientation     66
  4.3. The alternative methods     67
  4.3.1. The Silent Way by Caleb Gattegno     68
  4.3.2. Total Physical Response by James Asher     71
  4.3.3. Suggestopedia by Georgi Lozanov     73
  4.3.4. Community Language Learning by Charles Curran     76
  Topics and review questions     79
  Further reading     80
  4.4. Focus on the learner     80
  4.5. Individual factors in foreign language learning     82
  4.6. Individualizing foreign language instruction     84
  4.7. The beginnings of Second Language Acquisition Research     86
  Topics and review questions     87
  Further reading     88
  PART THREE Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)    90
  
  5. The Communicative Approach to foreign language teaching     90
  5.1. Foundations of the Communicative Approach     90
  5.2. Interest in doing things with words     90
  5.3. The notion of communicative competence     92
  5.4. The importance of discourse in CLT     94
  5.5. The notion of role     97
  5.6. Developments in communicative syllabus design     98
  
  6. The Communicative Method and Techniques. Evaluating CLT     101
  6.1. The Communicative Method     101
  6.2. Criteria of communication in CLT     101
  6.3. Principles of the Communicative Method     103
  6.3.1. Further issues in the Communicative Method     105
  6.4. Typical activities and techniques     107
  6.4.1. Structured dialogue     108
  6.4.2. Jig-saw reading and listening     108
  6.4.3. Role-play     109
  Further reading     110
  6.4.4. Drama     110
  Further reading     111
  6.4.5. Simulation     111
  Further reading     113
  6.4.6. Project     113
  Further reading     115
  6.5. Evaluating CLT     115
  Topics and review questions     121
  Further reading     122
  
  PART FOUR The current perspective on teaching English as a foreign language    123
  
  7. Focus on verbal communication, learning, and reasoning     123
  7.1. The nature of communicative processes     124
  7.2. The main components of our learning ‘equipment’     128
  7.3. Strong ties between verbal communication and learning     131
  7.4. Language as a special code of verbal communication     132
  7.5. Reasoning processes available to the language learner     133
  Topics and review questions     134
  Further reading     135
  
  8. The whole-person involvement in verbal communication and learning     135
  8.1. The learner’s contribution to the dynamics of verbal communication and learning     135
  8.1.1. The role of cognitive resources     136
  8.1.2. Making communicative adjustments     137
  8.1.3. The learner’s creative and constructive involvement     137
  8.2. Personality factors     138
  8.2.1. The role of the learner’s personality     138
  8.2.2. The role of self-concept and self-esteem     138
  8.2.3. Communicative assertiveness     140
  8.3. The learner’s development along the lifespan     141
  Topics and review questions     142
  Further reading     143
  
  9. Conditions for foreign language learning. Input, interaction, feedback. The role of cultivation strategies     143
  9.1. Primary conditions for foreign language learning     144
  9.2. What can we learn from observing children?     145
  9.3. Secondary conditions for foreign language learning. Cultivation of language learning in the classroom     146
  9.3.1. The essential processes in foreign language learning and teaching     147
  9.4. A look back at the traditional approaches to foreign language teaching     150
  9.5. The nature of teaching – the role of the teacher     151
  9.6. Focus on form and accuracy     153
  9.7. The origin and role of the foreign language teaching method at the beginning of the 21st century     154
  Topics and review questions     156
  Further reading     156
  PART FIVE How communication and learning emerge    157
  
  10. The development of the language learner in childhood and adolescence     157
  10.1. Landmarks of development     158
  10.1.1. Gradual emergence of verbal communication     160
  10.2. The first stage – infancy and toddlerhood     160
  10.2.1. The psychosocial development     160
  10.2.2. Communication     161
  10.3. Early childhood (3–6 years)     163
  10.3.1. Language and communication in early childhood     165
  10.3.2. Play in early childhood     166
  10.4. Middle childhood     166
  10.4.1. Piaget’s stage of concrete operations     166
  10.4.2. The development of memory in middle childhood     167
  10.4.3. The development of thinking     169
  10.4.4. Language development     169
  10.4.5. Developing a sense of humour     170
  10.4.6. Gifted and creative children     171
  10.4.7. Personality and social development in middle childhood     172
  10.5. Adolescence     173
  10.5.1. Intellectual development in adolescence     174
  10.5.2. Personality development     174
  10.5.3. The search for identity, including sexual identity     175
  10.6. Resulting principles of foreign language teaching in childhood and adolescence     176
  Topics and review questions     178
  Further reading     178
  PART SIX Foreign language skills in the context of verbal communication    179
  
  11. Spoken and written discourse     179
  11.1. Comprehension and production as an integral part of verbal communication     179
  11.2. Differences between spoken and written discourse     180
  11.3. Authentic and didactic texts. Authentic and didactic tasks     183
  11.4. Stages in learning a skill in a foreign language     187
  Topics and review questions     189
  Further reading     190
  
  12. Receptive skills: reading comprehension     190
  12.1. Reading as a form of interaction     190
  12.2. Bottom-up and top-down processes in reading     191
  12.3. The learner’s angle on reading     192
  12.4. The levels of reading comprehension     193
  12.5. The teacher’s analysis of the text for its communicative and language learning ,potential     196
  12.6. Sources of difficulty in reading comprehension and strategies of dealing with them .    200
  12.6.1. Increasing background knowledge     200
  12.6.2. Highlighting the genre     202
  12.7. Vocabulary and the reading passage     203
  12.8. Types of reading and their function in learning English as a foreign language     205
  12.9. Options in designing reading tasks. Pre-reading, reading, and follow-up     207
  Further reading     212
  
  13. Receptive skills: listening comprehension     212
  13.1. Functions of auditory input in foreign language learning     213
  13.1.1. The learner as a member of an audience     213
  13.1.2. The learner as an addressee     214
  13.1.3. Input for pronunciation     215
  13.2. Listening comprehension as an integral part of verbal communication     217
  13.3. Difficulties experienced by foreign language learners in listening comprehension tasks     218
  13.4. Guidelines for listening tasks     220
  13.5. Auditory input and various follow-up activities     220
  13.6. Activities aimed at developing listening comprehension     222
  13.7. The function of tapescript in listening comprehension tasks     226
  13.8. Options in designing a listening comprehension task     227
  Further reading     231
  
  14. Productive skills: speaking     231
  14.1. Speaking as an act of verbal communication     232
  14.2. Long-term investment in speaking     234
  14.3. The structure of conversation     235
  14.4. Abilites involved in participating in a conversation     237
  14.5. The role of anxiety in developing the speaking skill     238
  14.6. Cultivating articulacy in EFL     240
  14.7. Selected activities for the development of the speaking skill     244
  Topics and review questions     247
  Further reading     247
  
  15. Productive skills: writing     248
  15.1. Writing as an act of constructing a message     248
  15.2. Differences between experienced and inexperienced writers     250
  15.3. Long-term investment in the writing skill     251
  15.4. Learning to write versus process writing     252
  15.5. Sample activities in learning how to write in EFL     254
  15.6. Process writing     258
  15.7. Error correction in written work     259
  Topics and review questions     261
  Further reading     262
  
  Conclusions     263
  Additional terms     267
  References     273
  Index     281
  Name index     289
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