The dominant view on science, until the middle of the 20th century, was that it is a neutral enterprise, that it is a selfless search for truths about the world, and that technology is simply an equally neutral application of its achievements. This was a view typical of the Enlightenment’s belief in technological progress. However, further development of science has shown that its relationship with values and society is far more complex than one might think at first glance. The beginnings of critical reflection on science and technology can be traced back to the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, for example to such thinkers as the Hungarian sociologist Karl Mannheim or the Polish microbiologist Ludwik Fleck, who pointed out that science is not only a cognitive undertaking, and technology is not a trouble-free application of its achievements. However, the critical reflection on the role of science and technology flourished in the second half of the 20th century, as a response to the growing interference of science in the social substance and the related controversies, i.e. multiple problems with nuclear energy or GMOs. The answer to the growing number of controversies was the emergence of a research area known as science and technology studies (STS) around the 1960s. It is an umbrella term, under which one could find many different fields of research e. g. the social construction of technology and history of technology, sociology of scientific knowledge and scientific institutions, or social understanding of science. There are also areas that are more loosely linked to the STS like sociology of environment, development studies, new social movements theory, ethics and philosophy which have brought forward many fruitful insights into different aspects of energy development (see e.g. Callon et al., 2009, Gross, Heinrichs, 2010 or the special issue of the journal Energy Research & Social Science “Energy Transitions in Europe” (vol 13/2016)). Despite the great diversity between these areas in terms of subject matter, methodology, research tools and concepts, their common denominator is that they perceive science and technology as deeply rooted in values and society.