Strengthening the knowledge base for innovation in the European Union

Strengthening the knowledge base for innovation in the European Union

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In 2010 the EU launched a flagship policy initiative “Innovation Union” aimed at increasing the innovation rate and translating it into smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Strengthening the knowledge base is
one of its six pillars. This research, part of the “I3U – Investigating the Impact of the Innovation Union” project funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 programme, covers the impact of selected areas of the
Innovation Union initiative on innovation in Europe.
The questions that the book attempts to answer are the following: What are the effects of these diverse policy initiatives implemented at the EU
level? To what extent have they been implemented after seven years since the Innovation Union launch? What are the policy implications and
lessons learned?
The research findings are discussed in detail in eight chapters. These are based on a variety of unique data collected during desk and field
research, including surveys and interviews, which refl ect the opinions of all innovation system actors and stakeholders affected by these policy instruments.


Liczba stron218
WydawcaWydawnictwo Naukowe PWN
ISBN-13978-83-01-20215-6
Język publikacjipolski
Informacja o sprzedawcyRavelo Sp. z o.o.

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Spis treści

  List of abbreviations    9
  Preface    12
  
  1. Innovation Union initiative – an overview    15
  1.1. Introduction    15
  1.2. Innovation policy as an element of the innovation system    15
  1.3. History of the innovation policy in the European Union    17
  1.4. The Europe20 strategy and its Innovation Union initiative    20
  1.5. The European Union’s innovation performance in the years 2010-2017 in a comparative perspective    23
  1.6. Summary and conclusions    27
  References    28
  
  2. Additionality from public support to R&D and innovation in the European Union    31
  2.1. Introduction    31
  2.2. Public financial support for innovation in the EU    32
  2.3. Theoretical background and hypothesis development    33
  2.4. Sample description and research method    42
  2.5. Results    45
  2.6. Discussion and conclusions    47
  References    54
  
  3. The impact of Framework Programs on innovativeness in the European Union    59
  3.1. Introduction    59
  3.2. The FP7, CIP and H2020 programs in a nutshell    60
  3.3. Positioning of the FP7, CIP and H2020 key elements in the literature on innovation    62
  3.4. The impact and efficiency of the FP7, CIP and H2020    68
    3.4.1. The impact and efficiency of the FP7     69
    3.4.2. The impact and efficiency of the CIP    71
    3.4.3. The impact and efficiency of the H2020    72
  3.5. The relationship between innovation input and innovation output from the innovation actors’ perspective    73
    3.5.1. The role of actors in the FP7    74
    3.5.2. The role of actors in the H2020    75
  3.6. Conclusions    76
  References    78
  Appendix    82
  
  4. Supporting the research and innovation base through priority European research infrastructures    100
  4.1. Introduction    100
  4.2. Definition, typology and basic features of research infrastructures    101
    4.2.1. Definition, basic features and benefits of research infrastructures    101
    4.2.2. Types of European research infrastructures    103
    4.2.3. Monitoring and evaluating the economic impact of research infrastructures, with a focus on potential indicators and data    105
  4.3. Theoretical background for analyzing research infrastructures    108
    4.3.1. Social capital theory, innovative milieu, and the concept of creative class     108
    4.3.2. Innovation systems theory    110
    4.3.3. Economic network theory    112
  4.4. Why the European Union needs to support the development of research infrastructures    113
    4.4.1. Fragmentation of European investments in research infrastructure    113
    4.4.2. The high complexity (scale and costs) of European research infrastructures    114
    4.4.3. The complexity of projects in partnerships    115
    4.4.4. The inherent technical complexity of projects    116
    4.4.5. The need to solve key societal challenges    117
  4.5. EU policy measures to support priority research infrastructures    118
    4.5.1. Solution to the identified problems – European Roadmap for the ESFRI    118
    4.5.2. Geographical distribution of FP7 (part INFRA) spending    118
    4.5.3. FP7 and Horizon 2020 program (part INFRA) investments by main groups of innovation systems    121
    4.5.4. Interactions between countries and their organizations engaged in Horizon 2020, part INFRA projects    124
    4.5.5. Analysis of FP7 and Horizon 2020 program (part INFRA) investments in research infrastructures by types of actors    126
  4.6. The impact of research infrastructures on European innovation – findings from empirical research, including the survey research    128
    4.6.1. Results of the survey research conducted on coordinators of research infrastructures    128
    4.6.2. The results of the survey research conducted on users of research infrastructures    137
  4.7. Conclusions    143
  References    148
  
  5. The role of Global Research Infrastructures as a tool of innovation policy    153
  5.1. Introduction     153
  5.2. Global Research Infrastructures as an innovation policy tool    154
  5.3. Theoretical perspective    158
    5.3.1. Common-Pool Resources Approach    158
    5.3.2. The concept of Critical Mass    160
    5.3.3. Economics of Network Theory    162
  5.4. Implementation of Global Research Infrastructures    163
    5.4.1. Legal framework for Global Research Infrastructures    163
    5.4.2. Participation framework for Global Research Infrastructures    164
    5.4.3. Financial framework for Global Research Infrastructures    165
  5.5. Impact of Global Research Infrastructures    169
    5.5.1. Effects of financial and institutional leverage derived from non-EU countries    169
    5.5.2. Global Research Infrastructure performance indicators    170
    5.5.3. Results of the survey on European Research Infrastructure Coordinators    170
    5.5.4. Results of the survey on participants of projects financed by the FP7 INFRA and H2020 INFRA    172
  5.6. Conclusions    173
  References    175
  
  6. Boosting public sector and social innovation in Europe    181
  6.1. Introduction    181
  6.2. Public sector and social innovation: the concept     182
    6.2.1. Understanding the role of public sector and social innovation    183
    6.2.2. Financing research on social innovation and its role in society and the economy    184
    6.2.3. The European Public Sector Innovation Scoreboard as a basis for further work to benchmark public sector innovation    185
  6.3. Theoretical background for analyzing the impact of financing research on public sector and social innovation    186
  6.4. Impact of the research program on public sector and social innovation    188
  6.5. Impact assessment of the pilot European Public Sector Innovation Scoreboard (EPSIS)    192
  6.6. Actors crucial to fostering public sector and social innovations    193
  6.7. Conclusions and policy recommendations    199
  References    200
  
  7. European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT): towards the excellence of European science    205
  7.1. Introduction    205
  7.2. Theoretical perspectives on the EIT contribution to innovation    209
    7.2.1. The knowledge triangle concept    209
    7.2.2. The I-U collaboration approach    210
    7.2.3. The networked innovation approach    211
  7.3. The Strategic Innovation Agenda of the EIT    212
  7.4. Actors involved in the EIT policy    214
  7.5. Impact of the EIT and KIC actions    221
  7.6. Conclusions    227
  References    230
  Appendices     234
  
  8. Implementing evidence-based policies: lessons learned from Joint Research Centre (JRC) activity    240
  8.1. Introduction    240
  8.2. Evidence-based policy and its impact on innovation: a literature review    241
  8.3. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) as a science support for European policy makers    246
    8.3.1. Strengthening the European science base for policy making through the JRC    247
    8.3.2. Quality of JRC scientific papers containing evidence for policy making    252
  8.4. The impact of science-based policy on innovation: the case of the Joint Research Centre    257
  8.5. Conclusions    266
  References    267
  
  Final conclusions    270
  List of tables    274
  List of figures and graphs    277
  Editor and author bios    279
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