Transnational Judicial Dialogue on International Law in Central and Eastern Europe

1 opinia


Anna Wyrozumska



This book is a result of a research undertaken under the direction of Professor Anna Wyrozumska by an international team of scholars from selected Central and Eastern European {CEE) States within the framework of the EUROCORES project 10-ECRP-028 International Law through the National Prism: the lmpact of Judicial Dialogue. The authors examine the approach that Polish as well as Czech, Hungarian, Lithuanian, Russian and Ukrainian courts take towards international law in the light of respective regulations governing its position in domestic legal systems. The investigation focuses on judicial dialogue emerging in this context.
As the key concept of the book, the judicial dialogue is defined broadly, as a practice of using any kind of cross-references to reasoning and interpretation of law made by judges beyond a given legal system. The authors seek to understand whether, and, if so, under which circumstances and for which purposes the CEE courts enter into a dialogue with international or foreign domestic courts when international law comes into question. The ultimate objective of this study is to assess how judicial dialogue may contribute to the development of international law and, consequently, the strengthening of the rule of law.
The volume contributes significantly to the mainstream academic discourse on interpretation and application of international law putting in the spotlight the CEE states’ experience.

Liczba stron504
WydawcaWydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego
Numer wydania1
Język publikacjiangielski
Informacja o sprzedawcyePWN sp. z o.o.

Ciekawe propozycje

Spis treści

  Introduction    11
  I. The Central and Eastern European Judiciary and Transnational Judicial Dialogue on International Law (Anna Wyrozumska)    15
  1. Judicial Dialogue as a Means of Application of International Law    15
  2. Poland    18
  2.1. The Legal Setting for Judicial Dialogue    18
  2.2. Deference to International and Foreign Courts Decisions    23
  2.2.1. References Prompted by Applicants or Made Proprio Motu    23
  2.2.2. Identification of Customary International Law – Skrzypek, Natoniewski and Nigerian Embassy    26
  3. The Czech Republic    29
  3.1. The Legal Setting for Judicial Dialogue    29
  3.2. Deference to International and Foreign Courts Decisions    34
  3.2.1. General Remarks    34
  3.2.2. The Foreigner Requesting Asylum in a Transit Area Case    36
  3.2.3. A Dissenting Dialogue    37
  3.2.4. The Slovak Pensions Rights Case – Horizontal and Vertical Dialogue    40
  4. Hungary    43
  4.1. Dualistic Approach to International Law    43
  4.2. ‘International Legal Comparisons’ of Hungarian Courts    48
  4.2.1. The Abortion and the Status of a Foetus Case    48
  4.2.2. The Election Rights Case – the Limits of International Comparisons    50
  4.2.3. The Status of the Decisions of Foreign and International Courts    51
  5. Lithuania    53
  5.1. The Legal Setting for Judicial Dialogue    53
  5.2. Deference to International and Foreign Courts Decisions    57
  5.2.1. The Judges Salaries Case    58
  5.2.2. The Concept of Family in State Policy Case    58
  5.2.3. The Paksas Case – the Status of the Decisions of Foreign and International Courts and the Dissenting Dialogue    60
  6. The Russian Federation    62
  6.1. The Legal Setting for Judicial Dialogue    62
  6.2. Strong Dissenting Dialogue – the Answer to the ECtHR Markin and Anchugov Cases    70
  6.3. The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties and Politics – the Crimea Case    76
  7. Ukraine    79
  7.1. The Legal Setting for Judicial Dialogue    79
  7.2. The Birth of Judicial Dialogue in Ukraine    82
  8. Conclusions    88
  Bibliography    90
  II. The Dialogue of CEE Constitutional Courts in the Era of Constitutional Pluralism (Izabela Skomerska-Muchowska)    103
  1. Introduction    103
  2. The Concept of Constitutional Pluralism    105
  2.1. From Dualism to Pluralism – a Conceptual Framework    105
  2.2. Institutional Dimension of the Constitutional Pluralism – the Role of Judicial Dialogue    109
  3. Judicial Dialogue in Practice of the CEE Constitutional Courts    112
  3.1. The Actors of Judicial Dialogue    112
  3.1.1. The Dialogue with the European Court of Human Rights    112
  3.1.2. The Dialogue with the CJEU    121
  3.1.3. The Dialogue with Other International Courts    134
  3.1.4. The Dialogue with Foreign National Courts    139
  3.2. The Main Fields of Judicial Dialogue    142
  3.2.1. The Judicial Dialogue on Human Rights Protection    142 Searching for a Common Standard of Protection – Consistent Interpretation    142 Shaping the Standard of Protection Through Judicial Dialogue – the Pilot Judgement Procedure and Beyond    149
  3.2.2. The Dialogue on EU Law    158
  3.3. The Limits of Judicial Dialogue – from Sovereignty to Constitutional Identity    165
  4. Concluding Remarks    179
  Bibliography    182
  III. Administrative Courts and Judicial Comparativism in Central and Eastern Europe (Joanna Krzemińska-Vamvaka)    197
  1. Introduction    197
  2. Cases with a Foreign Element    198
  3. The EU Administrative Law and Judicial Comparativism    199
  4. The Cooperation of Administrative Courts and Judges in the EU    201
  4.1. Sharing of Comparative Information    204
  4.2. Internet-Enabled Continuous Communication    206
  4.3. Exchange Programs for Practicing Judges    207
  4.4. The Structured Cooperation as a Backbone of Judicial Comparativism    207
  4.5. The CEE Cooperation    209
  5. The Overview of the References to Foreign Law by the Polish Administrative Courts    211
  5.1. Types of References    214
  5.2. Reasons for Resorting to Foreign Law    214
  5.3. Sources of Knowledge on Foreign Law    216
  5.4. Specificity    216
  5.5. Visibility and Intensity    217
  5.6. Contributors to the Judicial Comparativism    218
  6. Administrative Courts Commenting on their Comparative Activity    218
  7. Comparative Overview of CEE Judicial Dialogues in Administrative Law    218
  8. Conclusions    222
  Bibliography    225
  IV. The Dialogue between Selected CEE Courts and the ECtHR (Marcin Górski)    233
  1. Introduction    233
  2. The Normative Framework    238
  2.1. The Polish Example of the Influence of the ECtHR Case Law on the Domestic Legal System    238
  2.2. The Duty of Observance of the ECtHR Case Law    241
  2.3. Reopening of Proceedings Following an Adverse Ruling of the ECtHR    249
  3. The Forms of Judicial Dialogue of the CEE States’ Courts with the ECtHR Classified vis-à-vis the Criterion of Appropriateness    254
  3.1. The Proper Dialogue: Implementing the ECHR Standard by Domestic Courts or Consciously Questioning it after Thorough Analysis    255
  3.1.1. Poland    255
  3.1.2. Other CEE States    259
  3.2. The Fake Dialogue: Decorating the Reasoning Instead of Reading the Case Law and Cases of Abusive Interpretation    265
  3.3. The Failed (Non-attempted) Dialogue: Cases of Non-implementation of the ECHR Standard    270
  3.3.1. Poland    270
  3.3.2. Other CEE States    276
  3.4. Non-classifiable Decisions: Problems with Identification of the Convention’s Status or the Role of National Organs in the Convention System    281
  4. Concluding Remarks    285
  Bibliography    288
  V. The Preliminary Reference Procedure as an Instrument of Judicial Dialogue in the EU – the CEE Perspective (Anna Czaplińska)    297
  1. Introduction    297
  2. The Dialogue-generating Features of the Preliminary Reference Procedure    300
  3. The Preliminary Reference Practice of the Courts in the Selected CEE Member States and Its Impact on the Development of EU Law    306
  3.1. The Czech Republic    306
  3.2. Hungary    311
  3.3. Lithuania    317
  3.4. Poland    322
  4. Conclusion    328
  Bibliography    330
  VI. The Polish Ordinary Courts in Dialogue on International Law (Magdalena Matusiak-Frącczak)    333
  1. Introductory Remarks    333
  2. Examples of a Proper Dialogue    335
  2.1. Human Rights Protection    335
  2.2. Customary International Law    340
  2.3. Application of EU Law    346
  2.4. Other Areas of Judicial Dialogue    349
  3. Examples of a Decorative Dialogue    351
  4. Examples of a Failed Dialogue    353
  4.1. Human Rights    354
  4.2. International Customary Law    354
  5. Conclusions    355
  Bibliography    359
  VII. International Refugee Law and Judicial Dialogue from the Polish Perspective (Michał Kowalski)    365
  1. The Specificity of International Refugee Law and Judicial Dialogue    365
  2. The Europeanization of International Refugee Law and Judicial Dialogue    369
  3. International Refugee Law and Judicial Dialogue, Conversation or Interaction?    373
  4. The Judicial Dialogue on Refugee Law in the Polish Context    375
  4.1. Introductory Remarks    375
  4.2. The General Characteristics of the Polish Contribution to the Judicial Dialogue on Refugee Law    376
  4.3. Defining the Concept of a ‘Social Group’    382
  4.4. Applying the Internal Protection (Flight) Alternative Principle (‘the IPA principle’)    385
  4.5. Granting Subsidiary Protection and the Denial of Access to Adequate Medical Treatment    390
  5. Conclusion    393
  Bibliography    395
  VIII. Lithuanian Courts in Dialogue on International Law (Elżbieta Kuzborska)    399
  1. Introduction    399
  2. The Legal Basis for Judicial Dialogue in the Domestic Law    401
  3. General Considerations Concerning Judicial Dialogue in Lithuania    403
  4. Domestic Measures for International Law Infringements    408
  5. The Application of EU Law    413
  6. Implementing Strasbourg’s Standards – Review of the Examples of Judicial Dialogue    419
  6.1. The Right to a Fair Trial and other Procedural Guarantees    421
  6.2. The Protection of Private and Family Life    425
  6.3. Freedom of Expression    425
  6.4. Rights of a Child    426
  6.5. The Right to Liberty and Security of a Person    427
  6.6. Freedom of Association    428
  6.7. Prohibition of Discrimination    429
  7. The Challenges for the Judicial Dialogue in Lithuania    431
  8. Conclusions    433
  Bibliography    435
  IX. Ukrainian Courts in Dialogue on International Law (Ivanna Kolisnyk)    441
  1. Introduction    441
  2. The Legal Basis for Application of International Law in a Domestic Legal System    442
  2.1. The Status of International Law within the Ukrainian Constitutional Framework    442
  2.2. Legislative Provisions Regarding the Implementation of International Law
  within the National Legal System    446
  2.2.1. The Law on International Treaties of Ukraine    446
  2.2.2. The procedural laws of Ukraine    447 The Civil Procedural Code of Ukraine    447 The Criminal Procedural Code of Ukraine    449 The Commercial Procedural Code of Ukraine    449 The Code of Administrative Proceedings of Ukraine    450
  2.2.3. The Law of Ukraine on Execution of Decisions and Application of Practice of the European Court of Human Rights    450
  3. The Practice of Application of International Law in the Ukrainian Legal Order    452
  3.1. The Application of the ECtHR Case Law in Ukraine    452
  3.2. References to the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 1961 and the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963    457
  3.3. The importance of ‘Namibia exception’ in Judgments Regarding the Temporarily Occupied Territories of Ukraine (ICJ Advisory Opinion on Namibia of 21 June 1971)    458
  4. Conclusions    462
  Bibliography    463
  X. Problems with Application of International Law in Ukraine: Theoretical and Practical Issues (Taras Tsymbrivskyy)    467
  1. The Lack of Proper Definition of the Status of International Law in the Law of Ukraine    467
  2. The Application of International Law by the Constitutional Court    474
  3. Conclusions    477
  Bibliography    478
  XI. Who is to Give Effects to the ECtHR Decisions? The Vajnai Saga (Erzsébet Csatlós)    481
  1. Introduction    481
  2. The Background of the Vajnai Saga    483
  3. A Brief Introduction to the Status of International Legal Sources in the Hungarian Legal System    486
  4. The History Repeats Itself: the Administrative Authority versus Application of International Law    489
  4.1. The Facts    489
  4.2. The Police and the ECtHR judgment    491
  4.3. Doctrinal Background: the Non-harmonisation of Domestic Law with International Law as a Key Issue    491
  4.4. Which Standard to Apply in the Lack of State’s Implementation of the ECtHR Judgment?    492
  4.5. Which Organ is Obliged to Take International Obligations into Consideration?    494
  5. Problems Revealed by the Vajnai Saga    497
  Bibliography    500
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