European Union Policies at a Time of Crisis

European Union Policies at a Time of Crisis

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In recent years, and more specifically, since the outbreak of the Eurozone crisis in 2010, the model of integration has changed. The rising political power of the strongest Member States and the political segmentation of the European Union into separate circles of integration have become the new reality. These processes have been accompanied by a range of related changes, such as the growing politicisation of the European Commission, increasing institutionalisation of the euro area and petrification of the geographical and political division into central and peripheral states in the EU. At this point, it is difficult to predict whether these changes will prove temporary or permanent, and what will be their systemic consequences (or, in other words, how will they impact Europe’s political system). It is similarly difficult to judge how the changes will influence specific EU policies. An attempt to answer these difficult but compelling questions is the objective of our book.


Tomasz Grzegorz Grosse,
Professor of Political Science and Head of Department of European Union Policies at the University of Warsaw; author of In Search of Geo-economics in Europe and coeditor of The Aspects of a Crisis


The authors of this volume offer a comprehensive analysis of conditions and results of EU policies in the context of European integration. The ambitious scope of the project required the knowledge of economics, history, political science, international relations, law and even sociology. The authors fulfill their promise to the readers: the volume contains a comprehensive and detailed elucidation of the influence of the crisis on the integration practice, and on the contemporary conditions of EU integration, including both its structure and functioning.


Zbigniew Czachór,
author of The Crisis and Disrupted Dynamics of the European Union


The volume edited by Tomasz G. Grosse promises to be a very valuable contribution to Polish European studies. It belongs to the broader field of critical reflections on European integration and as such, it opens new possibilities of constructive debate about the present and the future of the European Union.


Janusz Ruszkowski,
coauthor of Euro: Common Currency of the United Europe


The Authors:
Paweł J. Borkowski, Jacek Czaputowicz, Tomasz Grzegorz Grosse, Krzysztof M. Księżopolski, Justyna Miecznikowska, Jadwiga Nadolska, Artur Nowak-Far, Kamila Pronińska, Małgorzata Smutek, Krzysztof Szewior, Jolanta Szymańska, Joanna Ziółkowska.


Liczba stron352
WydawcaWydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar
ISBN-13978-83-7383-826-0
Numer wydania1
Język publikacjiangielski
Informacja o sprzedawcyRavelo Sp. z o.o.

Ciekawe propozycje

Spis treści

  Introduction. European Policies and Change in the EU Integration Model     9
  Tomasz Grzegorz Grosse
  Introduction     9
  1. The growing importance of intergovernmentalism     10
  2. What kind of an integration model emerged during the crisis?     17
  3. Political segmentation in Europe     23
  4. Main research questions and hypotheses     28
  1. Systematisation of Concepts and Models Related to Differentiated Integration
  and Political Segmentation     33
  Joanna Ziółkowska
  Introduction     33
  1.1. Differentiated integration and political segmentation     33
  1.2. The beginnings of the debate on differentiated integration     36
  1.3. The second wave of the debate     39
  1.4. The debate in the 1990s     42
  1.5. The differentiation debate following the Amsterdam Treaty     46
  1.6. A classification of differentiated integration categories     50
  1.7. A proposed classification     53
  Conclusions     56
  2. European Union Foreign Policy at a Time of EU Crisis and Fragmentation     59
  Paweł J. Borkowski, Małgorzata Smutek
  Introduction     59
  2.1. The appeal of a Europe engulfed in crisis     62
  2.2. Implementation of the Lisbon Treaty in times of crisis     69
  2.3. EU international activities in a regional and problem-related approach,
  in the context of the crisis and the threat of fragmentation     75
  Conclusions     82
  3. The Impact of the Changing European Integration Model
  on the Common Security and Defence Policy     85
  Jacek Czaputowicz
  Introduction     85
  3.1. The impact of the crisis on the CSDP     87
  3.2. Positions of Member States with regard to the CSDP     90
  3.3. Division lines in the CSDP     96
  Conclusions     99
  4. Economic and Financial Crisis in the European Union:
  The Definition of the Concept and Scholarly Discussion Over It     103
  Artur Nowak-Far
  Introduction     103
  4.1. The economic and financial crisis in the Eurozone     104
  4.1.1. The characteristics of the Eurozone Crisis     105
  4.2. The Eurozone crisis as a crisis of the EU’s economic governance system     113
  Conclusions     123
  5. Social Policy at a Time of Changes in the Model of European Integration     131
  Jadwiga Nadolska, Krzysztof Szewior
  Introduction     131
  5.1. Social policy in the process of European integration     132
  5.2. Social policy in times of crisis     135
  5.3. The place of European social policy in the new architecture
  of economic governance in the EU     138
  5.4. Forms of interference of EU bodies in Member States’ social spheres,
  within the framework of the new economic governance     140
  5.4.1. Assistance packages     140
  5.4.2. The European Semester     146
  5.5. European social policy: between supranationality
  and intergovernmentalism     150
  5.6. Growth of asymmetry in the social sphere between North and South     152
  Conclusions     153
  6. Cohesion Policy During the Eurozone Crisis     157
  Tomasz Grzegorz Grosse
  Introduction     157
  6.1. The influence of the crisis on the cohesion policy     159
  6.2. Increased intergovernmental or community action?     163
  6.3. Divisions and hierarchy between Member States     168
  6.4. The dividing line in cohesion policy     170
  Conclusions     176
  7. The Common Agricultural Policy at a Time of Crisis     179
  Justyna Miecznikowska
  Introduction     179
  7.1. Divisions within the Common Agricultural Policy: consequences of diversified
  agrarian structure and production potential     181
  7.2. Divisions in the Common Agricultural Policy: consequences of different direct
  payments schemes     182
  7.3. Negotiating the MFF: on financing the post-2013 CAP     185
  7.4. Discussion on the post-2013 CAP: disputes and divisions within the EU     191
  7.5. CAP reform and segmentation of the EU     194
  Conclusions     200
  8. Energy Policy and the Change in the Model of European Integration     203
  Kamila Pronińska
  Introduction     203
  8.1. Energy policy in the contemporary processes of European integration     204
  8.2. Determinants of EU energy policy during the crisis in the Eurozone     209
  8.3. Intergovernmentalism vs. the community method in EU energy policy     213
  8.4. EU energy policy – a mechanism to augment segmentation in the EU
  or an area in which these tendencies can be halted?     221
  Conclusions: Energy policy at a time of crisis – divergent challenges
  and conflicting interests?     229
  9. European Union Climate Policy – the Crisis as a Catalyst for Change     233
  Krzysztof M. Księżopolski
  Research objectives     233
  9.1. On the essence of climate change and EU climate policy     233
  9.2. Conditions and division relating to climate policy costs     236
  9.3. Towards a new integration model in European Union climate policy     244
  9.4. The Climate and Energy Package 2030 and the deepening
  of divisive tendencies     246
  9.5. Segmentation in the EU climate policy     253
  Conclusions     256
  10. Intergovernmentalism vs. Supranationalism in the Migration Policy
  and Home Affairs of the European Union     259
  Jolanta Szymańska
  Introduction     259
  10.1. The direction of “communitarisation”: a historical development
  of cooperation in the area of home affairs and justice     261
  10.2. Reversing the trend? The area of freedom, security and justice
  in the post-Lisbon period     263
  10.3. A change in the political mood, and the unfavourable atmosphere
  surrounding migration     264
  10.4. The first cracks – the “Arab Spring” crisis and the Schengen
  system reform     266
  10.5. The migration crisis and the fight over the distribution of refugees
  in the European Union     271
  10.6. Freedom of movement – not under the same rules for everyone?     274
  10.7. “De-Lisbonisation” of cooperation in the field of home affairs:
  the implementation of the Stockholm Programme and EU priorities
  in the area of freedom, security and justice for the years 2015–2019     276
  Conclusions     278
  Summary. Towards Regional Disintegration Theory     281
  Tomasz Grzegorz Grosse
  Introduction     281
  1. Results of crises     284
  2. Increased intergovernmentalism and the hierarchy of power     289
  3. The ambiguous role of the Commission and the weakening
  of communitarianism     292
  4. Divisions in the EU     296
  Conclusions: Towards a theory of regional disintegration     300
  Bibliography     307
  About the Authors     341
  Index of names     345
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