The Muon Trigger of the CMS experiment - design, performance, upgrade

The Muon Trigger of the CMS experiment - design, performance, upgrade

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The CMS experiment has operated smoothly during the LHC Run-1 (2010–2013). A large numer of collisions, triggered by the CMS Level-1 and High-Level trigger systems allowed CMS to discover the Higgs boson and perform many important physics measurements and searches.


In this monograph the muon trigger of the CMS detector is discussed, including its design
and performance. The CMS experiment is reviewed and its initial performance and operation are emphasized. The selected main physics results are shown. The detector upgrade perspectives are also presented.


The monograph is supplemented with the performance of the PACT trigger, development studies on muon isolation and simplified track reconstruction based on the Pixel Detector.


Liczba stron119
WydawcaUniwersytet Warszawski
ISBN-13978-83-235-1678-1
Numer wydania1
Język publikacjiangielski
Informacja o sprzedawcyRavelo Sp. z o.o.

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Spis treści

  1. The CMS experiment at the LHC—design and initial performance     11
  
  1.1. Introduction     11
  1.2. CMS detector     12
  1.3. CMS trigger and data acquisition system     13
  1.4. CMS operation     15
  1.5. Commissioning and initial detector performance results     17
  
  2. The Level-1 muon trigger. Performance     22
  
  2.1. Level-1 trigger     22
  2.1.1. Calorimeter trigger algorithms     23
  2.1.2. Muon trigger     25
  2.1.3. Level-1 event selection     30
  2.2. Muon trigger performance     32
  2.2.1. Level-1 muon trigger efficiency     32
  2.2.2. Level-1 muon trigger rates     33
  2.2.3. Level-1 muon trigger timing     33
  
  3. The muon track reconstruction at the High-Level trigger     36
  
  3.1. Introduction     36
  3.2. HLT operation     36
  3.3. HLT reconstruction software     39
  3.4. Basics of the muon reconstruction     41
  3.5. Track and primary-vertex reconstruction     43
  3.5.1. Seeding and pixel-based reconstruction     43
  3.5.2. Combinatorial Track Finder     45
  3.6. Muon reconstruction at the HLT     47
  3.6.1. Level-2 reconstruction     48
  3.6.2. Level-3 reconstruction     48
  3.6.3. Muon isolation     49
  3.6.4. Performance     50
  
  4. Selected physics results     53
  
  4.1. Introduction     53
  4.2. Higgs physics     53
  4.2.1. H → γγ     54
  4.2.2. H → ZZ → 4C     55
  4.2.3. H → ττ     56
  4.2.4. Combination of Higgs measurement and Higgs properties determination     58
  4.3. Vector boson production, top physics and QCD     58
  4.4. Other selected measurements     60
  4.4.1. Charged particle multiplicities and momentum spectra     60
  4.4.2. Topological correlations in two-particle distributions     61
  4.4.3. Search for rare B/Bs → µ+µ− decays     62
  4.5. Searches for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model     63
  4.6. Heavy-ion physics with CMS     64
  
  5. Perspective outlook and summary     65
  
  5,1, Introduction     65
  5.2. CMS upgrades during Phase-I     65
  5.2.1. RPC and CSC upscope in LS1     65
  5.2.2. New Level-1 trigger     66
  5.2.3. HCAL modifications     66
  5.2.4. Pixel Detector replacements     66
  5.3. Phase-II upgrades     67
  5.4. Summary of physics results     67
  5.5. Summary of muon trigger operation and author’s contribution     68
  
  A. The PACT for RPC system     69
  
  A.1. Introduction     69
  A.2. PACT system     70
  A.2.1. Layout of the system     70
  A.2.2. PAC algorithm     71
  A.2.3. Segmentation and data flow     72
  A.2.4. HSCP trigger     73
  A.2.5. Commissioning challenges     75
  A.3. PACT performance     75
  A.4. Role of the RPC system in Level-1 muon trigger     77
  
  B. Development of methods for track reconstruction, primary vertex finding and seed generation with the Pixel Detector     79
  
  B.1. Introduction     79
  B.2. Components of the reconstruction software     80
  B.3. Estimate of track position uncertainties     81
  B.3.1. Parametrization of hit errors     81
  B.3.2. Parametrization of multiple scattering     81
  B.3.3. Track bending in the longitudinal plane     82
  B.4. Finding hit pairs     82
  B.5. Finding hit triplets     85
  B.6. Evaluation of the parameters of pixel-tracks     88
  B.7. Pixel vertexing     89
  B.8. Generation of seeds     90
  B.8.1. Seeds from hit pairs     91
  B.8.2. Seeds from hit triplets-91
  B.9. Conclusions     91
  
  C. Development of High-Level trigger algorithms for muon isolation     92
  
  C.1. Introduction     92
  C.2. Simulation     93
  C.3. Isolation algorithm     94
  C.3.1. Optimization of algorithms     95
  C.3.2. Calorimeter isolation     96
  C.3.3. Pixel isolation     97
  C.3.4. Tracker isolation     100
  C.4. Overall performance     105
  C.4.1. Rate reduction     105
  C.4.2. Signal efficiency     107
  C.4.3. Algorithm timing     108
  C.4.4. Discussion     108
  C.5. Conclusions     109
  
  D. Acronyms     110
  
  Acknowledgements     111
  Bibliography     112
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