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This book is about the Stockholm court’s policy on France during the reign of Gustav III. It is a work on the history of diplomacy based on an extensive source material. The author concentrates especially on the crisis of the French monarchy in the years 1787-1792. He also pays a lot of attention to Gustav III’s unsuccessful attempts to build an anti-French and anti-revolutionary coalition of European monarchs. The chronological range of work covers Gustav III’s reign, thus the death of that ruler on March 29, 1792 marks the end of the book.
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|Chapter 1. The Most Faithfull Ally of the Versailles Court: Gustav III’s Reign between 1771 and 1786||21|
|Prince Gustav and his relations with the court of Versailles||21|
|The party of the “Hats” regains its power||28|
|The beginnings of Gustav III’s reign||31|
|The monarchist coup d’état and the end of the “Age of Liberty”||36|
|Formal and legal basis of Gustav III’s reign after the August coup||42|
|Internal reforms in the spirit of the Enlightenment||46|
|Changes in the organisation of the Swedish diplomatic service||52|
|A foreign policy of Gustav III after the August coup||57|
|Gustav III’s attitude towards France between 1773 and 1776||62|
|Attempts at a rapprochement to the St. Petersburg court||68|
|The Riksdag of 1778–1779 and changes in the internal policy||71|
|A growing opposition against Gustav III’s reign: The Riksdag of 1786||77|
|Absolutist tendencies in Gustav III’s internal policy||80|
|An alliance with France against the court of Copenhagen: Gustav III’s foreign policy between 1778 and 1783||83|
|Searching a new ally: Gustav III’s foreign trip in the years 1783 and 1784||94|
|Against the St. Petersburg court: An anti-Russian Swedish policy of 1784–1786||99|
|Chapter 2. In the Face of the Approaching Storm: The Swedish-French Relations from January 1787 to May 1789||105|
|Missed opportunities, lost illusions: The internal situation in France in the years 1774–1786||107|
|The Assembly of Notables: The origins of the opposition of the privileged||112|
|A guerrilla war between the monarchy and parliaments||118|
|The attitude of France and Sweden towards the events in Holland||130|
|France and Sweden towards the Russo-Turkish war||139|
|Gustav III in the years 1787–1788: The growing conflict with Russia||150|
|Beginnings of the Swedish-Russian war: The failure of Gustav III||163|
|The Danish invasion of Sweden: The king’s fight with the noble opposition||171|
|Between war and peace: Preparations for the campaign of9||178|
|The Ministry of Necker: The time before the first meeting of the Estates-General||181|
|Chapter 3. Growing Concern: Swedish Diplomacy Towards the Events in France from May 1789 to August 1790||187|
|From the Estates-General to the first reforms of the National Constituent Assembly||187|
|Gustav III in the face of the July events in France||197|
|A new reshuffle on the French political scene: The second disturbance of Paris people: The first attempt to explain mechanisms of a revolution||202|
|The Turin mission of the Baron von Rehausen||220|
|Around diplomacy and war: Politics of Gustav III in the period of the second Russian campaign||224|
|The Paris mission in the second half of 1789||228|
|Evert Taube and Hans Axel von Fersen||233|
|The internal situation and international position of France in the light of Staël von Holstein’s account (January–July 1790)||239|
|The campaign of 1790 and the peace with Russia||249|
|Chapter 4. First Attempts to Rescue the Royal Family: The Swedish Diplomacy Towards France from August 1790 to June 1791||257|
|At a crossroads: The foreign policy of Gustav III from August 1790 to May 1791||257|
|The Russian perspective: St. Petersburg mission of Curt von Stedingk||265|
|The revolution slows down: The situation in France from August to December 1790||271|
|The growing anxiety: The situation in France from January to May 1791||281|
|Louis XVI and the king’s first attempts to leave Paris||290|
|A trusted friend: Hans Axel von Fersen and his role in preparations for the royal family’s escape||293|
|Gustav III’s attitude towards the plans of Louis XVI’ escape||301|
|Chapter 5. The Failed Escape of Louis XVI and First Attempts to Organise the Anti-French Coalition (June–October 1791)||311|
|The Varennes affair and its consequences||311|
|Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein towards the French monarchy crisis||315|
|Gustav III in Aachen, first attempts to intervene in France||319|
|The Koblenz mission of Evert Taube and the Swedish diplomacy’s efforts to obtain the support of the German princes||331|
|The Austrian mission of Hans Axel von Fersen||335|
|The Swedish diplomacy’s efforts at the Madrid court||361|
|From the Paris perspective: French affairs described by Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein and Erik Bergstedt||368|
|The Swedish-Russian negotiations and St. Petersburg’s reaction to French events||382|
|A great hope of a counterrevolution: Gustav III’s actions from early August to mid-October 1791||388|
|Chapter 6. With Russia Against the Revolution: Swedish Diplomacy Towards France in the Period from the Late October 1791 to Late March 1792||401|
|France on the road to war with monarchical Europe||401|
|The efforts of Swedish diplomacy aimed to sign a subsidy treaty with the court of Madrid||429|
|The Koblenz mission of Carl Gustaf Oxenstierna||436|
|In the service of heart and head: The Brussels mission of Hans Axel von Fersen||456|
|Between fear and hope: The actions of Curt von Stedingk in St. Petersburg in the period from the end of October 1791 until the end of March 1792||485|
|A failed leader of a monarchical crusade: Gustav III in the last months of his life and reign||495|
|Sources and Studies||525|
|Index of Personal Names||543|