France in Sweden’s Foreign Policy in the Era of Gustav III’s Reign (1771-1792)

1 opinia



This book is about the Stockholm court’s policy on France during the reign of Gustav III. It is a work on the history of diplomacy based on an extensive source material. The author concentrates especially on the crisis of the French monarchy in the years 1787-1792. He also pays a lot of attention to Gustav III’s unsuccessful attempts to build an anti-French and anti-revolutionary coalition of European monarchs. The chronological range of work covers Gustav III’s reign, thus the death of that ruler on March 29, 1792 marks the end of the book.

Liczba stron568
WydawcaWydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego
Numer wydania1
Język publikacjiangielski
Informacja o sprzedawcyePWN sp. z o.o.


Ciekawe propozycje

Spis treści

  Introduction    9
  Chapter 1. The Most Faithfull Ally of the Versailles Court: Gustav III’s Reign between 1771 and 1786    21
  Prince Gustav and his relations with the court of Versailles    21
  The party of the “Hats” regains its power    28
  The beginnings of Gustav III’s reign    31
  The monarchist coup d’état and the end of the “Age of Liberty”    36
  Formal and legal basis of Gustav III’s reign after the August coup    42
  Internal reforms in the spirit of the Enlightenment    46
  Changes in the organisation of the Swedish diplomatic service    52
  A foreign policy of Gustav III after the August coup    57
  Gustav III’s attitude towards France between 1773 and 1776    62
  Attempts at a rapprochement to the St. Petersburg court    68
  The Riksdag of 1778–1779 and changes in the internal policy    71
  A growing opposition against Gustav III’s reign: The Riksdag of 1786    77
  Absolutist tendencies in Gustav III’s internal policy    80
  An alliance with France against the court of Copenhagen: Gustav III’s foreign policy between 1778 and 1783    83
  Searching a new ally: Gustav III’s foreign trip in the years 1783 and 1784    94
  Against the St. Petersburg court: An anti-Russian Swedish policy of 1784–1786    99
  Chapter 2. In the Face of the Approaching Storm: The Swedish-French Relations from January 1787 to May 1789    105
  The Ambassador    105
  Missed opportunities, lost illusions: The internal situation in France in the years 1774–1786    107
  The Assembly of Notables: The origins of the opposition of the privileged    112
  A guerrilla war between the monarchy and parliaments    118
  The attitude of France and Sweden towards the events in Holland    130
  France and Sweden towards the Russo-Turkish war    139
  Gustav III in the years 1787–1788: The growing conflict with Russia    150
  Beginnings of the Swedish-Russian war: The failure of Gustav III    163
  The Danish invasion of Sweden: The king’s fight with the noble opposition    171
  Between war and peace: Preparations for the campaign of9    178
  The Ministry of Necker: The time before the first meeting of the Estates-General    181
  Chapter 3. Growing Concern: Swedish Diplomacy Towards the Events in France from May 1789 to August 1790    187
  From the Estates-General to the first reforms of the National Constituent Assembly    187
  Gustav III in the face of the July events in France    197
  A new reshuffle on the French political scene: The second disturbance of Paris people: The first attempt to explain mechanisms of a revolution    202
  The Turin mission of the Baron von Rehausen    220
  Around diplomacy and war: Politics of Gustav III in the period of the second Russian campaign    224
  The Paris mission in the second half of 1789    228
  Evert Taube and Hans Axel von Fersen    233
  The internal situation and international position of France in the light of Staël von Holstein’s account (January–July 1790)    239
  The campaign of 1790 and the peace with Russia    249
  Chapter 4. First Attempts to Rescue the Royal Family: The Swedish Diplomacy Towards France from August 1790 to June 1791    257
  At a crossroads: The foreign policy of Gustav III from August 1790 to May 1791    257
  The Russian perspective: St. Petersburg mission of Curt von Stedingk    265
  The revolution slows down: The situation in France from August to December 1790    271
  The growing anxiety: The situation in France from January to May 1791    281
  Louis XVI and the king’s first attempts to leave Paris    290
  A trusted friend: Hans Axel von Fersen and his role in preparations for the royal family’s escape    293
  Gustav III’s attitude towards the plans of Louis XVI’ escape    301
  Chapter 5. The Failed Escape of Louis XVI and First Attempts to Organise the Anti-French Coalition (June–October 1791)    311
  The Varennes affair and its consequences    311
  Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein towards the French monarchy crisis    315
  Gustav III in Aachen, first attempts to intervene in France    319
  The Koblenz mission of Evert Taube and the Swedish diplomacy’s efforts to obtain the support of the German princes    331
  The Austrian mission of Hans Axel von Fersen    335
  The Swedish diplomacy’s efforts at the Madrid court    361
  From the Paris perspective: French affairs described by Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein and Erik Bergstedt    368
  The Swedish-Russian negotiations and St. Petersburg’s reaction to French events    382
  A great hope of a counterrevolution: Gustav III’s actions from early August to mid-October 1791    388
  Chapter 6. With Russia Against the Revolution: Swedish Diplomacy Towards France in the Period from the Late October 1791 to Late March 1792    401
  France on the road to war with monarchical Europe    401
  The efforts of Swedish diplomacy aimed to sign a subsidy treaty with the court of Madrid    429
  The Koblenz mission of Carl Gustaf Oxenstierna    436
  In the service of heart and head: The Brussels mission of Hans Axel von Fersen    456
  Between fear and hope: The actions of Curt von Stedingk in St. Petersburg in the period from the end of October 1791 until the end of March 1792    485
  A failed leader of a monarchical crusade: Gustav III in the last months of his life and reign    495
  Conclusion    517
  Sources and Studies    525
  Index of Personal Names    543
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