Can Work Be Detrimental? Working Excessively Questionnaire (WEQ): The Development and Validation

Can Work Be Detrimental? Working Excessively Questionnaire (WEQ): The Development and Validation

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Psychology in Practice


For some, excessive workload is a source of satisfaction, while for others it stems from the desire to meet one's own and external expectations.


Sometimes a fulfilling job fulfills one's life because it provides everything that is needed to be happy. Work can be an accepted way of escaping from one's emotional problems. In some cases excessive workload results from the fear of losing a job and sometimes from poor work organization. Another reason to work excessively may be that it is financially worthwhile. Workaholism is a harmful consequence of excessive workload. Only deep and thorough analysis differentiates workaholism from excessive workload.


The formal structure of the monograph reflects the development of the stages of the Working Excessively Questionnaire (WEQ) in three chapters. Chapter 1 presents the relationship between excessive workload and workaholism the causes and negative effects of excessive focus on work, and possible theoretical explanations of the phenomenon of workaholism. Chapter 2 discusses the various research methods used in studies of workaholism and describes the foundation of the WEQ and the process of working on its final version. And chapter 3 discusses the correlates of the four scales of the Working Excessively Questionnaire.


Liczba stron128
WydawcaWydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar
Seria978-83-7383-704-1
ISBN-13978-83-7383-704-1
Numer wydania1
Język publikacjiangielski
Informacja o sprzedawcyRavelo Sp. z o.o.

Ciekawe propozycje

Spis treści

  Preface    9
  Chapter    1
  Excessive workload     13
  Work and its place in life   13
  The psychopathology of work   16
  Workload   16
  Work addiction   21
  Workaholism as a behavioral addiction (non-chemical addiction)   26
  Workaholism: The moderating effects of individual and contextual factors   28
  The most obvious negative consequences of workaholism     33
  Subjective effects   33
  Work-family conflict   34
  The organizational effects   36
  Theoretical explanations of workaholism     36
  Chapter    2
  Refinement and further validation of the working excessively
  questionnaire (WEQ)     39
  Various measures of workaholism   39
  Questionnaire to measure work addiction (WART)  39
  Spence and Robbins’ scales to test workaholism (WorkBAT)   41
  Abbreviated scale to test workaholism (WorkBAT-R)   42
  Sub-scale of the questionnaire Schedule for Nonadaptive Personality
  (SNAP-Work)     42
  Scales for testing susceptibility to workaholic behaviors (SWBT)   43
  Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS)     44
  Workaholism Analysis Questionnaire (WAQ)   44
  Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS)   45
  The Scale of Being Absorbed by Work (SZAP)   46
  Multidimensional Questionnaire for Workaholism Assessment (WKOP)     46
  Conclusions     47
  Methodological consequences     48
  Conceptualizing our questionnaire   49
  Item pool development   50
  Final refinement of the questionnaire     52
  The sample     52
  Scale statistics     54
  Scale reliabilities and intercorrelations     56
  Criterion analysis   56
  Criterion-related and construct validity
  Correlations with self-reported symptoms of work addiction     63
  Content sub-scales analysis   64
  Summary   67
  Chapter    3
  Analyzing correlates of the Working Excessively Questionnaire
  (WEQ)   69
  Scales and questionnaires used in the research     69
  Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory (MSEI)   71
  Internal-External Locus of Control at Work Scale   71
  Temperament Survey for Adults (EAS-TS)   71
  The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)   72
  The Hope Scale   72
  Need for Achievement Questionnaire   73
  The Relationships Questionnaire (RQ)     73
  The Lack of Control over Work Scale and its correlates   73
  The relationship between lack of control over work and locus of control     75
  The relationship between lack of control over work and identity integration
  and other components of self-esteem   76
  The relationship between lack of control over work and work seniority   78
  The relationship between lack of control over work and sense of mission   79
  The relationship between lack of control over work and temperament traits   83
  Conclusion   85
  Perfectionist Working Style Scale and its correlates   86
  The relationship between perfectionist working style and perceived self-control
  and other components of self-esteem   87
  The relationship between perfectionist working style and locus of control   89
  The relationship between perfectionist working style and hope for success   91
  The relationship between perfectionist working style and temperament traits   92
  Conclusion   93
  General Beliefs about Work Scale and its correlates   94
  The relationship between assigning a specific role to work and the assessment
  of a person’s own competences and intimate relationships 95
  The relationship between the attachment pattern and beliefs about work 96
  The relationship between assigning an important role to work, sociability,
  and a person’s hope for success   97
  Defining a person’s value based on their work and their willingness to enter into
  intimate relationships   98
  The relationship between general beliefs about work and sense of mission   99
  The relationship between general beliefs about work and traits of temperament
  and character  100
  Conclusion  100
  Perceived Oppressiveness of Organization Scale and its correlates  101
  The relationship between perceiving the organization as oppressive and locus
  of control and tendency to react with negative emotional arousal  103
  The relationship between work position and perceived oppressiveness of the
  organization 106
  The relationship between perceived oppressiveness of the organization and defensive
  self-enhancement  107
  The relationship between perceived oppressiveness of the organization and
  sociability 108
  Conclusion  108
  Conclusion 110
  References 112
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